RIMT, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab, India

OCTOBER 10, 2011


Future Scintillation of Ubiquitous Computing 

Nitin Jain, Dr. S.N Panda, Dr. Ashok Kumar 

Ubiquitous Computing can be considered as the future computing paradigm that can provide unparalleled level of convenience and productivity to the world. Ubiquitous computing is making many computing devices available throughout the physical environment to facilitate seamless interaction with the surroundings and available resources by making these computing devices invisible to the user. The main objective of this paper is to explore the current status of ubiquitous computing and describe various research projects as well as proposed ideas by different scientists on ubiquitous computing. In the last section of this paper an attempt is made to explore the future utilizations of ubiquitous computing in multiple fields. 


Sachin Gupta, Dr.S.N.Panda

Vulnerability has a capability to harm security system or exploit the system security policy. It has cause many problems to data. The objective of this paper is to explore multiple types of vulnerability in Computer Network. An effort has been made to study the relevant issues and to propose some solutions. A comparative study and focus on the vulnerability data and its effect has been shown up as tendency towards year up to 2020.

Vulnerabilities to Security Attacks in Ad Hoc Networks

Ishu Gupta, Dr. Harsh Sadawarti, Dr. S.N. Panda

Ad hoc networks are a new paradigm of wireless communication for mobile hosts, Ad hoc. They are usually set up in situations of emergency, for temporary operations or simply if there are no resources to set up elaborate networks. There are various challenges that are faced in the Ad hoc environment. The wireless nature of communication and lack of any security infrastructure raise several security problems. This paper outlines vulnerabilities to security attacks which are an important challenge in design of theses networks and a detailed classification of threats against ad hoc networks. Threats exist to ad hoc networks both from external nodes unauthorized to participate in the mobile ad hoc networks, and from internal nodes, which have the authorization credentials to participate in the mobile ad hoc network. Any protocols and simulations to test the properties should include the capability to handle each type of node and attack.

Generation of significant association rules based on Weightage and Utility

Dalvinder S. Dhaliwal, Parvinder S. Sandhu and S. N. Panda

Association rule mining has been an area of active research in the field of knowledge discovery and numerous algorithms have been developed to this end. Of late, data mining researchers have improved upon the quality of association rule mining for business development by incorporating the influential factors like value (utility), quantity of items sold (weight) and more, for the mining of association patterns. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach based on weight factor and utility for effectual mining of significant association rules. Initially, the proposed approach makes use of the traditional Apriori algorithm to generate a set of association rules from a database. The proposed approach exploits the anti-monotone property of the Apriori algorithm, which states that for a k-itemset to be frequent all (k-1) subsets of this itemset also have to be frequent. Subsequently, the set of association rules mined are subjected to weightage (W-gain) and utility (U-gain) constraints, and for every association rule mined, a combined Utility Weighted Score (UW-Score) is computed. Ultimately, we determine a subset of valuable association rules based on the UW-Score computed. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in generating high utility association rules that can be lucratively applied for business development.

Cloud Computing an optimized infrastructure for Web Services
Dr.Rachna Soni, Ms.Gurmeet Kaur 

Cloud computing has emerged as a next generation high-performance computing infrastructure. Having major techniques, and research results in virtualization, grid computing, utility computing, web and software services , led to on-demand cloud computing. This paper identifies various computing paradigms promising to deliver the vision of computing utilities. The foundation of the cloud infrastructure is the delivery of servers, networks and other hardware appliances through virtualization. So,a Cloud computing infrastructure that aims to offer a virtualization has been presented.

Regulation of Cyber Crimes in India: Challenges and Solutions
Dr (Mrs.) Manjinder Gulyani 
Internet can be said as a necessary evil of the present era. It is believed to be full of anarchy and a system of law and regulation therein seems contradictory. However, Cyberspace is being governed by a system of law called Cyber law. Cyber law is a generic term which refers to all the legal and regulatory aspects of internet. Publishing a web page is an excellent way for any business to vastly increase its exposure to millions of individuals world-wide. It is that feature of the Internet which is causing much controversy in the legal community. 
Cybercrime spans not only state but national boundaries as well. Perhaps we should look to international organizations to provide a standard definition of the crime. At the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders, in a workshop devoted to the issues of crimes related to computer networks, cybercrime was broken into two categories and defined thus:
a. Cybercrime in a narrow sense (computer crime): Any illegal behavior directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them.
b. Cybercrime in a broader sense (computer-related crime): Any illegal behaviour committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession [and] offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network. 
.Of course, these definitions are complicated by the fact that an act may be illegal in one nation but not in another.
These definitions, although not completely definitive, do give us a good starting point one that has some international recognition and agreement for determining just what we mean by the term cybercrime.

Fingerprint Recognition for User Authentication
Vivek Dhiman, Dr. Chander Kant

This paper represents how we can use fingerprint recognition for authentication purpose. Here we use fingerprint as biometric because it is secure, universally applicable and unique. The purpose of fingerprint recognition is to recognize a person on basis of his/her fingerprint image. A fingerprint is believed to be unique to each person. Fingerprints of even identical twins are different. Fingerprints are one of the most mature biometric technologies and are also considered as proofs of evidence in courts of law all around the world. Therefore Fingerprints are also used in forensic divisions worldwide for criminal investigations.

Hurdles to the Successful Integration of ICT In Teaching and Learning Environment
Jupinder Kaur, Jasmeet Kaur
ICT is an acronym that stands for Information Communications Technology. ICT is the core business of education can accelerate and improve learning on a number of fronts. It can also provide the means of gathering, connecting and analyzing data about teaching and learning in ways that enable us to more accurately diagnose student need and evaluate programs. Studying the obstacles to the use of ICT in education may assist educators to overcome these hurdles and become successful technology adopters in the future. This paper looks at the contribution that ICT that aims to present the perceived hurdles to technology integration in science education. The major hurdles were lack of confidence, lack of competence, and lack of access to resources. Since confidence, competence and accessibility has been found to be the critical components of technology integration in including software and hardware, effective professional development, sufficient time, and technical support need to be provided to teachers. However, the presence of all components increases the possibility of excellent integration of ICT in learning and teaching opportunities. 

Kamal Malik, Dr. Harsh Sadawarti

Clustering is a young and a dynamic field of research in data mining. Clustering can be used as one of the techniques of data mining as it is really very efficient in finding out the relevant nuggets of knowledge from the large oceans of data. In this paper, a very important method of clustering is discussed i.e., partitioning method. Partitioning method is a very important algorithm of clustering that first creates an initial set of k partitions, and then uses an iterative relocation technique to improve the partitioning of moving objects. Typically, partitioning method includes k-means, k-medoids and CLARANS. All these algorithms are discussed in this paper.

Babita Singla 

Information technology has systematically increased productivity and supported economic growth across both developed and developing countries. Technology is the collection of endlessly creative solutions and it has entered each and every sphere of our lives. But the major cause of concern is that in this highly increasing dependence on technology, we somehow neglected the negative aspect of this technology which it had on our lives and the mother earth.
During my research, I analyzed that this technology affected our earth due to the high emissions of Carbon related toxic gases. There are two basic reasons: one being the continuous working of processors while computers were idle; and second the use of dangerous raw materials such as Cathode Ray Tubes in computer screens (CRTs), etc.

Aim: My paper aims at the proposed solutions to these problems:
What impact do pervasive information and communication technologies have on global warming? 
Is it a sector that will hinder or help our fight against dangerous climate change? These questions require immediate attention. 

And then the discussion of the steps taken at present by various leading corporate.

Manpreet Singh Manna, Sabina Miglani

Society is becoming more dependent upon data and networks for the operation of their businesses, government, national defence and other critical functions which in turn has made the invention of INTERNET in completely unplanned and unregulated manner. Internet is growing at rapid pace and cyberspace is becoming the new preferred and reliable environment of the world thus leading to the ticklish issues related to various legal aspects of cyberspace cropping up. The growth of cyberspace has been enormous and has resulted in the development of a new and highly specialized branch of law called CYBERLAW. Cyber law is an intersection of technology and law. This paper discusses ramifications of cyber crime including discussion on current and emerging forms of computer related illegalities and in addition, some preventive measures to protect them from various crime issues such as malware, computer viruses, phishing scams etc.
Keywords: Cyber law, Cyber crime, Information Technology.

Veenu maker, Vikram Singh

The overall aim of the software industry is to ensure delivery of high quality software to the end user. To ensure superior quality software, it is required to test software. Testing ensures that software meets user specifications and requirements. Test case generation from design specifications has the added advantage of allowing test cases to be available early in the software development cycle, thereby making test planning more effective. It is therefore advantageous to generate test cases from the software design or analysis documents, rather than the code. In a typical software development project, more than 50% of development effort is typically spent on testing. Both test case design and test case executions are time consuming and labor intensive. Hence, test case generation based on design specifications is important. This paper presents a case study for generation of test cases from UML approach. First, we transform the state chart diagram into labeled graph, and then labeled graph is transformed into intermediate diagram. From this intermediate diagram, we generate the test cases. Advantages of this approach is, it helps when nested of states or nested of nested composite states occur. 

Vijay Kumar, Rakesh Sharma, Ashwani Kush
Ad hoc networks are characterized by multi-hop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. The wireless mobile nodes in this network communicate with each other without centralized control or established infrastructure. Since the wireless links are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility of nodes, therefore, routing in MANET is a critical task due to highly dynamic environment. Congestion of nodes is one of deciding factors, an effort has been made in this paper to evaluate this parameter to standardize the research metrics. In this paper, a comparison of the performance of two popular on-demand routing protocols AODV and DSR have been performed. NS2 has been used as simulator and various metrics have been used to study the effect of UDP and TCP connections.

Leveraging Technology for Sustainable Development: Innovations through Naoncomposite Based Biodegradable Packaging
Anupama Kaushik

Success in the global market place depends upon the quality of not only the products or processes but also its impact on the environmental impact. Organisations have realized the potential of eco-labeling their product offerings and the systems they rely upon. Enhancing the effectiveness depends upon technology and innovation. Organisations are confronted with challenges of ensuring relevance and innovation in technology so as to gain and retain corporate leadership. Need for biodegradable packaging is reshaping the opinions of policymakers, marketers and public at large. A biodegradable product has the ability to break down, safely, reliably, and relatively quickly, by biological means, into raw materials of nature and disappear into nature. Application of biodegradable polymers instead of non-biodegradable polymers is one promising way to solve the environment pollution problems caused by polymeric wastes. Bio-nanocomposites offers tremendous scope for sustainable food packaging as an alternative for growing plastic menace.

Ajay Jangra, Renu Bala

Cloud computing is model that makes reference to the two essential concepts: ion and virtualization to increase the capacity and capability of IT by providing on demand network access to shared pool of computing resources without investing in new infrastructure. But as more and more information about enterprises are placed in cloud, concerns about how to secure the cloud environment to keep the data secure are also beginning to grow. So before shifting to cloud computing user must know about various threats present in this new system. In this paper, analysis about various attacks and vulnerabilities that pose threats to cloud is presented. This paper also concerned to the comparative study of attacks and different security issues arises due to the nature of cloud computing.


This paper consists the Advancements of Electricity meter in India.
The anticipated changes in electric energy meters have been seen since more than ten decades. The major parts of this paper is to make the automation of electricity meter that will reliable, effective, improve efficiency and can start new era of the energy power measurement equipment. Through new thoughts on the changes the measurement process of Electricity, I found that it will more powerful and sufficient technique to emerge new era of electricity meter.

Multilevel Association Rules
Dr Vivek Chandra, Dr Rajinder Singh, Amandeep Mehta
Data is the basic building block of any organization. Be it an individual or an organization of any type, it is surrounded by huge flow of quantitative or qualitative data.
Data are the patterns which are used to develop or enhance information or knowledge. All the organizations big or small has bulk of data which needs to be stored or retrieved systematically to form information. But Organizations are more interested in the interesting data rather than the bulk of data. So they need a systematic and scientific approach to extract meaningful data out of heaps of the data and to find out the relations among these patterns. Association Rule mining is the scientific technique to dig out interesting and frequent patterns from the transactional, spatial, temporal or other databases and to set associations , relations or correlations among those patterns (also known as item sets) in order to discover knowledge or to frame information. Association rule is the technique to set the relation between item sets to draw important conclusions.Association rules can be Boolean or Boolean or quantitative associations, Single dimension or multidimensional associations ,Single level or multilevel associations. Our previous work was focussed on single level hierarchy but there are applications which rather want to draw conclusions based on multiple level hierarchies.So in this paper we try to explore the multi-level association mining. 

Blended Learning: An Effective perspective in Organization Context
Puneet Kumar, Sushil Bhardwaj, Leena Jain

Blended learning is simply a flexible approach that combines different learning styles (online learning, face-to-face learning etc.) to meet the learning goals and objectives. The aspiration of blended learning is to offer the well organised, effective and efficient training practice by combining delivery modalities. The uses of Blended learning models are feasibly high impact on increasing revenue or reducing cost way to drive major corporate initiatives. Today most Organizations have adopted powerful methodologies for selecting the right media to improve the problem solving ability. According to business owners, they require the methodologies to roll out major programs that companies are facing which include business and technical assessment and the change management and business processes. All these issues need to be tackle through a methodological system approach and this paper reveals the effectiveness and powerfulness of blended learning. We also explore the available delivery methods and formulate the right mix of these delivery methods. The title of this paper foreshadows our belief that the best blend of skill enhancement and sustainability will ensure a company's long-term competitive advantage. 

Dynamic Super bug Layer on packet to prevent from intrusion
Richa Sharma, Dr. S.N.Panda

Intrusion Prevention is a technique that helps to identify and counter the potential hostile attacks originating from outside the organization and from inside the organization. As the problem of intruders has become critical, this paper proposes the layered approach for intruder prevention and detection. The technique takes inspiration from the super bug bacteria metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) to secure the packet travelling through the network. Suspicious intrusions are traced with the help of dynamic forensic analyzer. It detects the presence of the intruder before it carries out the attack and provides the mechanism to make the packets resistant to the known attacks. In case of unknown attacks, tempered packets are captured and reconstructed.

Shivani Punj, Dr. J.S Sohal, Dr.Harsh Sadawarti

In this paper, a new robust image watermarking algorithm based on Joint DWT-DCT-SVD Transformation is proposed. To increase the security and enhance the robustness of the watermark image, Arnold transform is applied to watermark image. A watermarked image is scrambled by Arnold cat map and embedded in cover image. The simulation results show that this algorithm is invisible and has good robustness and imperceptibility for image processing operations.

Kamal, Rinkey
Success in any field of human activity leads to crime that needs mechanisms to control it. Legal provisions should provide assurance to users, empowerment to law enforcement agencies and deterrence to criminals. The law is as stringent as its enforcement. Crime is no longer limited to space, time or a group of people. Cyber space creates moral, civil and criminal wrongs. It has now given a new way to express criminal tendencies. Back in 1990, less than 100,000 people were able to log on to the Internet worldwide. Now around 500 million people are hooked up to surf the net around the globe. 

Technology Mediated Experience Management: Role, Relevance and Findings from Indian Software Engineering Environment
Neeraj Sharma, Kawaljeet Singh, D.P. Goyal

Rapid changes in the field of experience management (EM) have to a great extent resulted from the spectacular progress we have witnessed in the field of information technology in general and Internet in particular. Internet technologies allow the movement of information at increasing speeds and efficiencies, and thus facilitate sharing as well as accumulation of experience in varied forms such as experience-bases. For example, computers capture data from measurements of natural phenomena, and then quickly manipulate the data to better understand the phenomena they represent. Increased computer power at lower prices enables the measurement of increasingly complex processes, which we possibly could only imagine before. Thus, technology has provided a major impetus for enabling the implementation of EM processes in managerial settings. Moreover, as learning has accrued over time in the area of social and structural mechanisms, such as through mentoring and retreats that enable effective experience sharing, it has made it possible to develop EM applications that best leverage these improved mechanisms by deploying sophisticated technologies.

In this paper we focus on the applications that result from the use of the latest technologies used to support EM mechanisms. Knowledge and experience management mechanisms are organizational means used to promote KM. The use of leading-edge technology to support KM mechanisms in ways not earlier possible (e.g., interactive conversations along with the instantaneous exchange of voluminous documents among individuals located at remote locations) enables dramatic improvement in EM. The paper discusses the role and relevance of technology in managing accumulated experience of organizational members. The paper also analyses the results of a survey carried out with software managers and engineers from Indian software organizations.


In today’s scenario, when the reserves of oil & fossil fuels are depleting day by day, there is an urgent need to save the energy to the extent possible. The reduction in the energy consumption shall also ensure reduction in global warming, the grave danger of which is looming large on the earth. To achieve this goal we have to use advance technology and management methods which will help us in solving such issues an chaellenges. In this paper the study provides the scope of energy conservation potential available in the plant to the management of Ambuja Cements. It shall provide the list of few equipments where energy conservation is possible along with the suggestion that how to achieve the energy conservation. 


Energy being an important element of the infrastructure sector has to be ensured its availability on sustainable basis. On the other hand, the demand for energy is growing manifold and the energy sources are becoming scarce and costlier. The reduction in the energy consumption shall also ensure reduction in global warming, the grave danger of which is looming large on the earth. Among the various strategies to be evolved for meeting energy demand, efficient use of energy and its conservation emerges out to be the least cost option in any given strategies, apart from being environmentally benign. In this paper we are representing the energy management after performing an energy audit in Ambuja cements Ltd. It shall provide the list of equipments where energy conservation is possible along with the suggestion that how to achieve the energy conservation. In this paper the list of equipments where energy conservation is possible along with the suggestion that how to achieve the energy conservation shall be provided. The result of energy audit is also provided in this paper, where it is shown that we can save money by saving energy with the help of energy management.

Firewall: Tool of Network Security
Kirti Walia, Dr. S.N. Panda

Firewall technology started emerging in the late 1980s when Internet was a fairly new technology in global usage and connectivity. [1] It was the response to a number of major internet security breaches occurred in late 1980s. Firewall stops anyone from outside to log into a computer system in a private computer network. This paper explores various firewalls along with their working mechanism. The last section explains a proposed working model to provide security for any organization using multiple firewalls placed at different locations in the network.

Hybrid Optical Amplifier for Multichannel Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed System
Rajneesh Randhawaa, Simranjit Singhb

In this paper, the 16 channel WDM systems at 10 Gbps have been investigated for the various optical amplifiers and hybrid optical amplifiers and the performance has been compared on the basis of transmission distance and dispersion. The amplifiers EDFA and SOA have been investigated independently and further compared with hybrid optical amplifiers like RAMAN-EDFA and RAMAN-SOA. It is observed that hybrid optical amplifier RAMAN-EDFA provides the highest output power (12.017 and 12.088 dBm) at 100 km for dispersion 2ps/nm/km and 4ps/nm/km respectively as compare to other optical amplifier.

Role of Component Based Software Engineering(CBSE) in Domain Application 
Vinay Avasthi, Ashish Bhardwaj, D.K Punia

Component based software Engineering (CBSE) is an key emerging area in software engineering, promising long sought after benefits like increasing reusability, reduced development time for market demand ,and, hence, reduced software production cost. The key challenge for the effective development of domain application is to understand their essential process models or business models and to align it with current software development process. Hence domain engineering play important role to design an application. In this paper we elaborate on how Component based software engineering (CBSE) approach will contribute in the domain of area of hydrology . 

Use of Evolutionary Algorithms for Energy Saving in WSN
Navroop Kaur, Meenakshi Bansal

One of the main challenges of wireless sensor network is how to improve its life time. The limited energy of nodes is the main obstacle. We may overcome this problem by optimizing the nodes' power consumption. A solution is clustering, but optimum clustering of wireless sensor network is an NP-Hard problem. Many researchers have focused on developing Hierarchical protocol for WSN. Hierarchical algorithms separate the node into clusters. for designing the optimal solution for WSN, evolutionary algorithms are under current research area. Evolutionary algorithm applies the principles of evolution found in nature to the problem of finding an optimal solution to a Solver problem. This paper simulate genetic algorithm, Bacterial foraging optimization algorithm, Particle swarm optimization. They form clusters and send their information to sink node by using multihop transmission. PSO performs better than other two but each presents its own strong and weak points.
Keywords: Evolutionary algorithm, PSO, BFO, Genetic algorithm.

Mrs. Sonreet Kaur, Ms. Taranpreet Kaur Jaggi

In the era of modern technology, where everything is to done computerized and automatic ,information can easily be processed and stored. at the same time it is also significant to protect that information from various cyber crimes which are growing at a very fast rate. Cyber crime is the latest and perhaps the most complicated problem in the cyber world. Cyber crime may be said to be those species, of which, genus is the conventional crime, and where either the computer is an object or subject of the conduct constituting crime. The present paper highlights the increasing cyber crimes liking hacking , email bombing and also its remedial measures and preventions. 

Study of various issues of Green Computing
Rajveer Kaur, Raman Maini

As 21st century belongs to computers and electronic items, energy issues will get a serious ring in the coming days. So the public debate on carbon emissions, global warming and climate change gets hotter. Computing power consumption of companies has reached a critical point. Despite the huge increase in computing power demands, there are many existing technologies and methods by which significant savings can be made. This paper is dedicated to the ways a typical organization can reduce their energy footprint while maintaining required levels of computing performance. Finally this paper provides study of green computing to solve energy issues efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.

ICT in Education
Subhash Chander, Sharmila Jaglan, Sandeep Kalyan
Education plays an important role in the development of a country. No country can progress without providing proper education to its citizens. In fulfilling this aim Government of India has been spending a particular percentage of GDP on education. Various schemes are being provided by Centre Government to improve the quality of Education at various levels of Education. Various programmes like DPEP, SSA, and RMSA are being implemented at secondary level by the virtue of central and International Aids. These schemes strengthen our education system by improving enrolment and providing quality education with the use of Edusat and other available ICT tools. In this world of ICT various new techniques and tools are available. If such tools (Interactive board, Model) are utilized properly then a much improvement in the Education system a can be guaranteed. In this paper various new ICT tools and their relevance in teaching learning process is being stressed upon. With the changing environment teachers also will have to change their role from preacher to facilitator and guide. Various ICT tools can help a lot increasing the standard of teaching learning process.

Monika Pathak, Raj Kumar, Inderbir Kaur
This article discussed the problem that is commonly faced by project managers in selecting an appropriate software development model. The purpose of this study is to propose a new alternative view in selecting development models from the perspective of degree of flexibility in different project situations. In this paper, we discuss the development model namely workflow model. This paper shows the features and defects of workflow model. Project leaders are advocating the use of the "workflow" method in application development. The main advantages of workflow technology become particularly effective in large, complex applications. Therefore, the development methodology is one of the main success factors for the deployment of workflow management systems. Three general methodologies  named Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Prototyping Methodology  are presented. Workflow architecture and workflow tools are also discussed in this paper. The paper analyzes processes and models from the perspective of their distinct advantages, disadvantages and suitability for different needs. Due diligence its a concept that savvy investors and investment bankers understand. Before you invest in something, spend the 
time to fully understand the people and the business. Only proceed after you’re convinced that everything is okay. Both the contractor and the customer should shape their interaction in stages, so that risk is reduced and requirements stability achieved before either party commits large sums of money.

 Aman Sharma, Avneet Kaur

Law enforcement personal understand the criminal mindset and know the basics of gathering evidence and bringing offenders to justice. The purpose of this summary paper is to describe a possible legal situation which can affront in the working environment. I would like to describe an interesting legal situation known as Cyber-squatting. Cyber-squatting is a derogatory term and means registering, selling or using a domain name with the intent of profiting from the goodwill of someone else's trademark. It generally refers to the practice of buying up domain names that use the names of existing businesses with the intent to sell the names for a profit to those businesses. Cyber-squatters usually ask for prices far greater than that at which they purchased it. Some cyber-squatters put up derogatory remarks about the person or company the domain is meant to represent in an effort to encourage the subject to buy the domain from them. Many cyber-squatters also register many variants of a popular trademarked name, a practice known as typo squatting.

Routing Algorithms in Resilience Overlay Network: A Survey 
Mohanjeet Singh, Gurdas Singh

Resilient Overlay Networks (RON) is an application-level packet forwarding service to make distributed applications more reliable. It improves end to end reliability and performance by taking advantage the network paths. It measures the quality of paths between hosts which are communicating and making routing decision based on the measured data interpretation. RON uses two types of routing algorithms techniques named proactive and reactive. Many algorithms, developed based on these techniques, found in the study. This paper presents a survey of most popular algorithms of RON with their underlying working and performance which make it to transmit data with great robustness and higher performance for distributed application using wide area Internet. This paper is divided into following sections. Section I gives the inefficiency in existing routing techniques and brief introduction about RON. Section II draws the basic working of RON routing techniques and their performances. Different routing algorithms schemes are illustrated in Section III. A hybrid routing algorithm approach to gain the different benefits from existing schemes is discussed in section IV. Finally Section V draws the conclusion. 

Information Technology: Enabling the Transformation of Power Distribution Sector
Ms. Vebhav Gupta
Power distribution is the one of the most important segment of electricity value chain. Poor performance of SEBs in this segment, underpin the argument that the reform in the distribution segment is crucial to efficient and self-sustainable power sector in India. Though Various steps have been taken to improve the performance in the distribution of utilities in the distribution sector but little benefits have been realized from these steps. The successes have been limited in nature and changes have not been institutionalized to be sustainable over the longer period. Therefore enabling infrastructure and proper systems are required to bring about sustainable and pervasive improvements. This requires radical improvements across the entire distribution sector.
Based on efficiency and customer satisfaction related issues in distribution, there are enough opportunities for application of IT in the Indian power distribution. There is much to learn from the best practices in IT management and IT applications from around the globe. At the same time, there is need to develop holistic approach and tailor- made IT solutions in power distribution in India.

Mr. Parteek Sharma, Er. Gagandeep Sharma, Mr. Munish kaushal 
ERP is known as enterprise resource planning which takes care of all the processes of an organization and here we are finding enhanced phases to implement ERP in an organization. Nearly all information technology educators and practitioners are familiar with the concept of a systems development life cycle (SDLC). The SDLC model is mainly based on new software development. The stages vary based on methodology, but mostly include planning and requirements definition, analysis, design of the new system, implementation, and post-implementation support such as maintenance and security. Less explored and known are the stages involved in commercial off the shelf installation. The actual implementation of commercial off the shelf software ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems is an area that is suggested to have a life cycle of its own. The importance of specific phases of this ERP implementation life cycle is the subject of this study. By surveying SAP enterprise resource planning implementations at two divisions of a major manufacturing company, a confirmatory factor analysis confirms the existence of four distinct phases of ERP implementation  preparation and training, transition, performance and usefulness, and maintenance. In addition, the overall preferred ERP use is studied and compared with these factors. It was found that the two significant phases which directly influenced preferred ERP use were preparation and training phase, and performance and usefulness phase. Neither transition nor maintenance was found to significantly affect preferred ERP use. This suggests to practitioners that more focus needs to be placed on the key determinants of preferred ERP use  preparation and training phase, and performance and usefulness phases. 

SAP ERP: Material Management Overview
Ishpreet Singh Virk, Raman Maini

The SAP ERP is world-class, integrated enterprise resource planning (ERP) software that addresses the core business software requirements of the most demanding midsize and large organizations around the world. SAP has strong position in the Indian market with 55% market share in ERP. SAP R/3 has main four modules viz. Material Management, Human Resources, Financial Accounting and costing. This paper gives an overview of MM module. Materials Management is all about managing the materials i.e. the resources of an organization. These resources include man, manpower and materials. SAP MM supports the procurement and inventory functions occurring in day-to-day business operations such as purchasing, inventory management, and reorder point processing. The various levels that can be defined for a SAP MM implementation are: Client, Company Code, Plant, Storage Location and Purchase Organization. This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of different operations of MM module from implementation point of view. The development of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems (SAP, Oracle, BAAN) has taken both the academic and business community by storm.